Planning and implementation of FSSM by using Excreta Flow Diagram (SFD) as a tool for mapping sanitation situation in Uttarakhand State, India

4 Poster Track: Applied Research » 4 Institutional arrangements

Speaker: Shantanu Kumar Padhi

Summary – for publication in conference brochure:

To better understand the sanitation systems and current state of FSSM in Uttarakhand NIUA has developed Excreta Flow Diagrams (popularly known as SFD) for 13 cities. The objective of this study was to get a clear and simple visual that expresses the percentage of people’s faecal waste being safely managed before disposal or reuse. This will help in future sanitation planning. NIUA identified the service gaps along the value chain through SFDs and developed action plans for all the cities. Among all cities, 4 – 5 cities are selected for deep-dive FSSM interventions. 

Introduction, methods, results and discussion:

Uttarakhand state is located at the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges. The state shares international borders with China in the north & Nepal in the east and inter-state boundaries with Himachal Pradesh in the west & northwest and Uttar Pradesh in the south. It lies in the northern part of India between latitudes 28°43′ N and 31°27′ N & longitudes 77°34′ E and 81°02′ E covering an area of 53,483 km2. The elevation ranges from 210 to 7817 m. According to the current scenario, there are a total of 92 urban local bodies (ULBs) in the Uttarakhand State out of which 8 are Municipal corporations, 41 are Municipalities & 43 are Municipal councils. 

To make an effective plan for improving urban sanitation situation, one should understand the existing context. The movement of FS and wastewater through the sanitation service chain can be illustrated by the Excreta/Shit Flow Diagrams – SFDs, which give a strategic overview of the sanitation situation in a city to the stakeholders (Blackett and Evans, 2015). SFD has been widely used as an advocacy tool worldwide till date.  For the urban sanitation programme of the state, SFD is used as a planning and monitoring tool for faecal sludge and septage management interventions for selected cities in the state of Uttarakhand. These towns were selected based on the various factors like type of containment system, desludging frequency, topography, accessibility, availability of existing treatment infrastructure, size of the municipality, scope for sufficient funds in the city. A mix of small, medium and large cities was selected to get an overall representation of urban sanitation programming of the state. 

Methodology for data collection for developing SFDs included collection & collation of secondary data, structured observations & direct measurements, key informant interviews (KIIs) & focus group discussions (FGDs) with relevant stakeholders like service providers including government and non-government institutions, RWAs (Resident Welfare Associations), masons, sanitary inspectors, emptiers, treatment plant operators and farmers etc. The data collected is triangulated and the SFD graphic generator (available at sfd.susana.org/) is used to produce the SFDs.

The key factors covered in this study are: 

•          Status of septage containment, conveyance, treatment systems and disposal in each city.

•          Analyse the strength of the office staff within municipal as well as parastatal departments.

•          Annual budget and expenditure. 

Conclusions and implications:

The findings and outcomes of the study are being used to identify the potential of implementing an appropriate approach for faecal sludge and septage management in these 13 cities of Uttarakhand state. The FSSM approach includes treatment options like co-treatment of septage with sewage, establishing faecal sludge treatment plant and deep row entrenchment (DRE), particularly in smaller towns with very low septage generation. 

The action plans prepared are strengthening and effective implementation of by-laws, training and other capacity-building initiatives for practitioners, and adopting low cost, natural-based decentralized approaches to FSM. 

SFDs are proving to be good evaluation, advocacy and planning tool. The city stakeholders get a better idea of critical points of failure in the provision of urban sanitation services in a given city or town. Thus, decision-makers are in a better position to decide and prioritise the interventions.

Relevant references:


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